Background: Evidence on risk for adverse outcomes from COVID-19 among pregnant women is still emerging. We examined the association between COVID-19 at delivery and adverse pregnancy outcomes, maternal complications, and severe illness, whether these associations differ by race/ethnicity; and described discharge status by COVID-19 diagnosis and maternal complications.
Methods: Data from 703 hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database during March-September 2020 were included. Adjusted risk ratios overall and stratified by race/ethnicity were estimated using Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Proportion not discharged home was calculated by maternal complications, stratified by COVID-19 diagnosis.
Results: Among 489,471 delivery hospitalizations, 6,550 (1.3%) had a COVID-19 diagnosis. In adjusted models, COVID-19 was associated with increased risk for: acute respiratory distress syndrome (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 34.4), death (aRR = 17.0), sepsis (aRR = 13.6), mechanical ventilation (aRR = 12.7), shock (aRR = 5.1), intensive care unit admission (aRR = 3.6), acute renal failure (aRR = 3.5), thromboembolic disease (aRR = 2.7), adverse cardiac event/outcome (aRR = 2.2) and preterm labor with preterm delivery (aRR = 1.2). Risk for any maternal complications or for any severe illness did not significantly differ by race/ethnicity. Discharge status did not differ by COVID-19; however, among women with concurrent maternal complications, a greater proportion of those with (versus without) COVID-19 were not discharged home.
Conclusions: These findings emphasize the importance of implementing recommended mitigation strategies to reduce risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and further inform counseling and clinical care for pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic.