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Arjaans S, Haarman MG, Roofthooft MTR, Fries MWF, Kooi EMW, Bos AF, Berger RMF. Fate of pulmonary hypertension associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia beyond 36 weeks postmenstrual age. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2020 Jun 22:fetalneonatal-2019-318531. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2019-318531. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32571832.

Objective: To determine the survival and evolution of pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature born infants beyond 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA).

Design: A single-centre retrospective cohort study from a university hospital.

Patients: Extremely preterm (gestational age <30 weeks and/or birth weight <1000 g) infants, born between 2012 and 2017, in the University Medical Center Groningen with confirmed PH at/beyond 36 weeks PMA.

Main outcome measures: Survival, mortality rate and PH resolution. Patient characteristics, treatment, presence and evolution of PH were collected from patient charts.

Results: Twenty-eight infants were included. All had BPD, while 23 (82%) had severe BPD and 11 infants (39%) died. Survival rates at 1, 3 and 7 months from 36 weeks PMA were 89%, 70% and 58%, respectively. In 16 of the 17 surviving infants, PH resolved over time, with a resolution rate at 1 and 2 years corrected age of 47% and 79%, respectively. At 2.5 years corrected age, the resolution rate was 94%.

Conclusions: These extremely preterm born infants with PH-BPD had a survival rate of 58% at 6 months corrected age. Suprasystemic pulmonary artery pressure was associated with poor outcome. In the current study, infants surviving beyond the corrected age of 6 months showed excellent survival and resolution of PH in almost all cases. Prospective follow-up studies should investigate whether resolution of PH in these infants can be improved by multi-modal therapies, including respiratory, nutritional and cardiovascular treatments.

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