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Whittemore BA, Swift DM, M Thomas J, F Chalak L. A neonatal neuroNICU collaborative approach to neuromonitoring of posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation in preterm infants. Pediatr Res. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01406-9. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33627823.

Morbidity and mortality in prematurely born infants have significantly improved due to advancement in perinatal care, development of NeuroNICU collaborative multidisciplinary approaches, and evidence-based management protocols that have resulted from a better understanding of perinatal risk factors and neuroprotective treatments. In premature infants with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), the detrimental secondary effect of posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation (PHVD) on the neurodevelopmental outcome can be mitigated by surgical intervention, though management varies considerably across institutions. Any benefit derived from the use of neuromonitoring to optimize surgical timing and technique stands to improve neurodevelopmental outcome. In this review, we summarize (1) the approaches to surgical management of PHVD in preterm infants and outcome data; (2) neuromonitoring modalities and the effect of neurosurgical intervention on this data; (3) our resultant protocol for the monitoring and management of PHVD. In particular, our protocol incorporates cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and transcranial doppler ultrasound (TCD) to better understand cerebral physiology and to enable the hypothesis-driven study of the management of PHVD. IMPACT: Review of the published literature concerning the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and a cerebral Doppler ultrasound to study the effect of cerebrospinal fluid drainage on infants with posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation. Presentation of our institution’s evidence-based protocol for the use of NIRS and cerebral Doppler ultrasound to study the optimal neurosurgical treatment of posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation, an as yet inadequately studied area.

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