Objective: To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm children who received soy-medium chain triglycerides-olive-fish oil-containing lipid emulsion (SMOF-LE) vs soy-based LE.
Study design: We conducted a pre-post comparative cohort study of children born < 29 weeks’ gestation who received > 7 days of LE. Outcomes were mortality/significant neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI), mortality/any NDI, significant NDI, any NDI, and individual components of NDI.
Results: Among children with follow-up data (Intralipid: n = 340/442, 77%; SMOF-LE: n = 214/286, 75%), baseline characteristics were comparable except for postnatal steroids. There was no significant difference in death/significant NDI between groups. Adjusted odds of death/any NDI [0.68 (95% CI 0.48, 0.97)], any NDI [0.64 (95% CI 0.44, 0.93)] and Bayley-III language score < 85 and <70 were significantly lower in the SMOF-LE group.
Conclusions: In extremely preterm children, a change from soy-based LE to SMOF-LE was not associated with deleterious effect on neurodevelopmental outcomes and may have been associated with some improvement.