Objective: To determine the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in infants exposed to nephrotoxic drug combinations admitted to 268 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group.
Study design: We included infants born at 22-36 weeks gestational age, ≤120 days postnatal age, exposed to nephrotoxic drug combinations, with serum creatinine measurements available, and discharged between 2007 and 2016. To identify risk factors associated with a serum creatinine definition of AKI based on the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria, we performed multivariable logistic and Cox regression adjusting for gestational age, sex, birth weight, postnatal age, race/ethnicity, sepsis, respiratory distress syndrome, baseline serum creatinine, and duration of combination drug exposure. The adjusted odds of AKI were determined relative to gentamicin + indomethacin for the following nephrotoxic drug combinations: chlorothiazide + ibuprofen; chlorothiazide + indomethacin; furosemide + gentamicin; furosemide + ibuprofen; furosemide + tobramycin; ibuprofen + spironolactone; and vancomycin + piperacillin-tazobactam.
Results: Among 8286 included infants, 1384 (17%) experienced AKI. On multivariable analysis, sepsis, lower baseline creatinine, and duration of combination therapy were associated with increased odds of AKI. Furosemide + tobramycin and vancomycin + piperacillin-tazobactam were associated with a decreased risk of AKI relative to gentamicin + indomethacin in both the multivariable and Cox regression models.
Conclusions: In this cohort, infants receiving longer durations of nephrotoxic combination therapy had an increased odds of developing AKI.