The developing preterm brain is vulnerable to injury, especially during periods of clinical instability; therefore, monitoring the brain may provide important information on brain health. Over the last 2 decades, a growing body of literature has been reported on preterm amplitude integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) with regards to normative data and associations with adverse outcomes. Despite this, the use of aEEG for preterm infants remains mostly a research tool with limited clinical applicability. In this article, we review the literature on normal and abnormal aEEG patterns in preterm infants and propose a stepwise clinical algorithm for aEEG assessment at the bedside that takes into account assessment of maturation and identification of pathological patterns. Conclusion: This algorithm may be used by clinicians at the bedside for interpretation to integrate it in clinical practice for neurological surveillance of preterm infants.