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Parmentier CEJ, de Vries LS, Toet MC, et al. Increased Use of Therapeutic Hypothermia in Infants with Milder Neonatal Encephalopathy due to Presumed Perinatal Asphyxia [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 19]. Neonatology. 2020;1-7. doi:10.1159/000508710

Introduction: Adverse outcomes have been reported in infants with mild neonatal encephalopathy (NE). Increasing clinical experience with the application of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) may have resulted in the treatment of newborns with milder NE during recent years.

Objective: To determine whether infants treated with TH in the initial years following implementation had a higher degree of NE than infants treated during subsequent years.

Methods: Infants with NE treated with TH from February 2008 until July 2017 were included. Thompson and Sarnat scores, amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) background patterns before the start of TH, and neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years were compared between infants treated from February 2008 until October 2012 (period 1) and infants treated from November 2012 until July 2017 (period 2).

Results: 211 newborns with NE were treated with TH (period 1: n = 109, period 2: n = 102). Sarnat scores in period 1 and 2 were mild in 7.3 vs. 28.4%, moderate in 66.1 vs. 44.1%, and severe in 26.6 vs. 22.5%, respectively (p = 0.008). Thompson scores were lower in period 2 (median = 9, IQR 7-12) than in period 1 (median = 10, IQR 8.5-13.5, p = 0.018). The aEEGs and neurodevelopmental outcomes were comparable between the periods.

Conclusions: Based on Thompson and Sarnat scores, but not aEEG background patterns, infants treated during the second period had milder NE than infants treated during the first years following implementation of TH. There was no difference in 2 years neurodevelopmental outcome. Further research is necessary to evaluate the value of TH for infants with clinically mild NE.

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