Context: The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation prioritized review of sustained inflation (SI) of the lung at birth.
Objective: To complete a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing strategies using 1 or more SI ≥1 second with intermittent inflations <1 second for newborns at birth.
Data sources: Medline, Embase, and Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews were searched from January 1, 1946, to July 20, 2020.
Study selection: Studies were selected by pairs of independent reviewers in 2 stages.
Data extraction: Reviewers extracted data, appraised risk of bias, and assessed certainty of evidence for each outcome.
Results: Ten trials enrolling 1502 preterm newborns were included. Five studies included newborns who did not receive assisted ventilation at the outset. There were no differences between SI and control groups for death before discharge or key morbidities. For death within the first 2 days, comparing SI with the controls, risk ratio was 2.42 (95% confidence interval = 1.15-5.09). In subgroup analysis of preterm infants ≤28 + 0 weeks’ gestation, for death before discharge, risk ratio was 1.38 (95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.91). Together, these findings suggest the potential for harm of SI.
Limitations: The certainty of evidence was very low for death in the delivery room and low for all other outcomes.
Conclusions: In this systematic review, we did not find benefit in using 1 or more SI >5 seconds for preterm infants at birth. SI(s) may increase death before discharge among the subgroup born ≤28 + 0 weeks’ gestation. There is insufficient evidence to determine the likely effect of SI(s) on other key morbidities.