Neuroimaging of the preterm infant is a common assessment performed in the NICU. Timely and focused studies can be used for diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic information. However, significant variability exists among neonatal units as to which modalities are used and when imaging studies are obtained. Appropriate timing and selection of neuroimaging studies can help identify neonates with brain injury who may require therapeutic intervention or who may be at risk for neurodevelopmental impairment. This clinical report reviews the different modalities of imaging broadly available to the clinician. Evidence-based indications for each modality, optimal timing of examinations, and prognostic value are discussed.