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Cheong JLY, Olsen JE, Lee KJ, Spittle AJ, Opie GF, Clark M, Boland RA, Roberts G, Josev EK, Davis N, Hickey LM, Anderson PJ, Doyle LW; Victorian Infant Collaborative Study Group. Temporal Trends in Neurodevelopmental Outcomes to 2 Years After Extremely Preterm Birth. JAMA Pediatr. 2021 Jul 19.

Importance: Survival of infants born extremely preterm (EP) (<28 weeks’ gestation) has increased since the early 1990s. It is necessary to know whether increased survival is accompanied by increased neurodevelopmental disability.

Objective: To examine changes in major (ie, moderate or severe) neurodevelopmental disability and survival free of major neurodevelopmental disability at 2 years in infants born EP.

Design, setting, and participants: Four prospective longitudinal cohort studies comprising all EP live births at 22 to 27 weeks’ gestation from April 1, 2016, to March 31, 2017, and earlier eras (1991-1992, 1997, and 2005), and contemporaneous term-born controls in the state of Victoria, Australia. Among 1208 live births during the periods studied, data were available for analysis of 2-year outcomes in 1152 children: 422 (1991-1992), 215 (1997), 263 (2005), and 252 (2016-2017). Data analysis was performed from September 17, 2020, to April 15, 2021.

Exposures: Extreme preterm live birth.

Main outcomes and measures: Survival, blindness, deafness, cerebral palsy, developmental delay, and neurodevelopmental disability at 2 years’ corrected age. Developmental delay comprised a developmental quotient less than -1 SD relative to the control group means on the Bayley Scales for each era. Major neurodevelopmental disability comprised blindness, deafness, moderate to severe cerebral palsy, or a developmental quotient less than -2 SDs. Individual neurodevelopmental outcomes in each era were contrasted relative to the 2016-2017 cohort using logistic regression adjusted for gestational age, sex, birth weight z score, and sociodemographic variables. Changes in survival free of major neurodevelopmental disability over time were also assessed using logistic regression.

Results: Survival to 2 years was highest in 2016-2017 (73% [215 of 293]) compared with earlier eras (1991-1992: 53% [225 of 428]; 1997: 70% [151 of 217]; 2005: 63% [170 of 270]). Blindness and deafness were uncommon (<3%). Cerebral palsy was less common in 2016-2017 (6%) than in earlier eras (1991-1992: 11%; 1997: 12%; 2005: 10%). There were no obvious changes in the rates of developmental quotient less than -2 SDs across eras (1991-1992: 18%; 1997: 22%; 2005: 7%; 2016-2017: 15%) or in rates of major neurodevelopmental disability (1991-1992: 20%; 1997: 26%; 2005: 15%; 2016-2017: 15%). Rates of survival free of major neurodevelopmental disability increased steadily over time: 42% (1991-1992), 51% (1997), 53% (2005), and 62% (2016-2017) (odds ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.15-1.48 per decade; P < .001).

Conclusions and relevance: These findings suggest that survival free of major disability at age 2 years in children born EP has increased by an absolute 20% since the early 1990s. Increased survival has not been associated with increased neurodevelopmental disability.

 

 

 

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