Objective: To evaluate the clinical manifestations and outcomes of neonates born to women who had Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) during pregnancy.
Materials and methods: A systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed and Embase till April 15, 2020, by combining the terms (COVID-19, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2, Novel Coronavirus, 2019-nCov, Wuhan pneumonia) and (pregnancy, pregnant women, mother, fetus, neonate, newborn, infant).
Results: We included 16 case series and 12 case reports describing a total of 223 pregnant women and 201 infants. Four newborns born to mothers affected by COVID-19 were reported to have laboratory-confirmed Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection within 48 hours after birth. However, Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction tests of the breast milk, placenta, amniotic fluids, and cord blood and maternal vaginal secretions were all negative for SARS-CoV-2 in the reported cases. Fetal death was reported in two cases, and 48 of 185 newborns (25.9%) were born prematurely. Infants born small for gestational age and low birth weight (< 2,500 g) accounted for 8.3% and 15.6% of reported cases, respectively. Birth asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome were observed in 1.8% and 6.4% of neonates, respectively. There was one neonatal death due to intractable gastric bleeding among the SARS-CoV-2-negative infants.
Conclusions: Current evidence suggests that COVID-19 during pregnancy rarely affects fetal and neonatal mortality, but can be associated with adverse neonatal morbidities. Vertical transmission has not been observed in the majority of the reported cases. The infants born to mothers with COVID-19 are carefully monitored for accompanying complication, and quarantine of infected mothers is warranted.