Objective: Examine neonatal hypoglycemia (NH) outcomes based on type of feeding provided with first dextrose gel.
Study design: Retrospective matched cohort study of 99 infants ≥35 weeks gestational age who received dextrose gel in combination with breastfeeding, formula feeding, or donor milk feeding for NH. The exposure was feeding type. The outcomes were: (1) median change in blood glucose (Δ BG) concentration after first gel, (2) odds of second gel, and (3) odds of recurrent NH.
Results: Median Δ BG was greater in formula (17.0 mg/dL) and donor milk (19.0 mg/dL) fed vs. breastfed infants (7.0 mg/dL). Donor milk and formula feeding were both associated with lower odds of second gel and recurrent NH. Associations remained significant in late-preterm infants, but only formula feeding remained significant in full-term infants.
Conclusions: Formula and donor milk feedings both raised blood sugar concentrations, but the impact differed by gestational age.