Neonatal vitamin D deficiency is common and is associated with development of pulmonary disease in children and adults. While the role of vitamin D in normal lung development is well established, the association between vitamin D deficiency and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains unclear. The present meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D and BPD. We identified relevant studies (n = 8) using the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed databases and applied the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess the methodological components of each study, and used I2 statistic to evaluate heterogeneity. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software version 3.3 was used for the statistical analysis. A total of 909 infants were included, of whom 251 (27.6%) were diagnosed with BPD. We found that both vitamin D deficiency at birth (four studies; OR 2.405; 95% CI 1.269 to 4.560; p = 0.007) and low levels of vitamin D at birth (four studies; standardized mean difference -1.463; 95% CI -2.900 to -0.027; p = 0.046) were associated with BPD. The compiled data suggest that antenatal vitamin D deficiency and low vitamin D levels are associated with neonatal BPD.