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Kim DH. Clinical implications of coronavirus disease 2019 in neonates. Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021 Feb 4. doi: 10.3345/cep.2020.01795. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33539697.

Since the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in December 2019, a small numebr of neonatal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases have been reported worldwide. At present, neonates acount for only a very small portion in the pediatric population affected by COVID-19. Thus, data on epidemiological and clinical features of COVID-19 in neonates are very limited. Approximately 3% of neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 were noted to be positive for SARS-CoV-2. Current limited data on neonates with COVID-19 suggest that neonatal COVID-19 shows a relatively benign course despite a high requirement for mechanical ventilation. However, neonates with preiexisting medical conditions and preterm infants appear to be at higher risk of severe illness from COVID-19. The greatest concern in perinatal aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic is the possibility of vertical transmission, especially transplacental transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Although direct evidence for vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is still lacking, the possibility of vertical transmission during late pregnancy cannot be ruled out. This review summarizes available case studies on COVID-19 in neonates and introduces what is currently known about neonatal COVID-19, focusing on its vertical transmission.

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