Background: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is critical for the growth and development of premature neonates who are unable to reach nutrition goals enterally. Using soybean-oil emulsions in PN is a risk factor for cholestasis, leading to alternative dosing strategies including a reduction in total lipid prescribed. Recently, SMOFlipid has been utilized with the goal of avoiding cholestasis while maintaining energy intake. The aim of our study was to compare the incidence of PN-associated cholestasis (PNAC) in patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) who received either Intralipid 20% or SMOFlipid.
Methods: This single-center, retrospective study evaluated all NICU patients who received PN for ≥14 days. Patients who received SMOFlipid were compared with those who received Intralipid. The primary end point was incidence of PNAC. Secondary end points included (1) prevalence of elevated liver function tests; (2) effect on select laboratory parameters; (3) development of PNAC by age; and (4) incidence of retinopathy of prematurity.
Results: A total of 136 neonates were included. Nine of 55 patients (16.4%) in the Intralipid group and 2 of 81 patients (2.5%) in the SMOFlipid group developed cholestasis, defined as direct bilirubin > 2 mg/dL or direct bilirubin > 20% of total bilirubin, when total bilirubin is >5 mg/dL, on or before 30 days post initiation of PN (P = .007).
Conclusion: Use of SMOFlipid as the lipid emulsion component of PN may be beneficial in prevention of PNAC in NICU patients that are receiving PN for ≥2 weeks.