Mese: Ottobre 2020

Meyerowitz EA, Richterman A, Gandhi RT, Sax PE. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: A Review of Viral, Host, and Environmental Factors. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Sep 17:M20-5008. doi: 10.7326/M20-5008. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32941052; PMCID: PMC7505025.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread globally in a few short months. Substantial evidence now supports preliminary conclusions about transmission that can inform rational, evidence-based policies and reduce misinformation on this critical topic. This article presents a comprehensive review of the evidence on transmission of this virus. Although several experimental studies have cultured live virus from aerosols and surfaces hours after inoculation, the real-world studies that detect viral RNA in the environment report very low levels, and few have isolated viable virus. Strong evidence from case and cluster reports indicates that respiratory transmission is dominant, with proximity and ventilation being key determinants of transmission risk. In the few cases where direct contact or fomite transmission is presumed, respiratory transmission has not been completely excluded. Infectiousness peaks around a day before symptom onset and declines within a week of symptom onset, and no late linked transmissions (after a patient has had symptoms for about a week) have been documented. The virus has heterogeneous transmission dynamics: Most persons do not transmit virus, whereas some cause many secondary cases in transmission clusters called “superspreading events.” Evidence-based policies and practices should incorporate the accumulating knowledge about transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to help educate the public and slow the spread of this virus.

Hanson KE, Caliendo AM, Arias CA, Englund JA, Hayden MK, Lee MJ, Loeb M, Patel R, Altayar O, El Alayli A, Sultan S, Falck-Ytter Y, Lavergne V, Morgan RL, Murad MH, Bhimraj A, Mustafa RA. Infectious Diseases Society of America Guidelines on the Diagnosis of COVID-19:Serologic Testing. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 12:ciaa1343. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa1343. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32918466; PMCID: PMC7543294.

Background: The availability of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serologic testing has rapidly increased. Current assays use a variety of technologies, measure different classes of immunoglobulin or immunoglobulin combinations and detect antibodies directed against different portions of the virus. The overall accuracy of these tests, however, has not been well-defined. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) convened an expert panel to perform a systematic review of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) serology literature and construct best practice guidance related to SARS-CoV-2 serologic testing. This guideline is the fourth in a series of rapid, frequently updated COVID-19 guidelines developed by IDSA.

Objective: IDSA’s goal was to develop evidence-based recommendations that assist clinicians, clinical laboratories, patients and policymakers in decisions related to the optimal use of SARS-CoV-2 serologic tests in a variety of settings. We also highlight important unmet research needs pertaining to the use of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests for diagnosis, public health surveillance, vaccine development and the selection of convalescent plasma donors.

Methods: A multidisciplinary panel of infectious diseases clinicians, clinical microbiologists and experts in systematic literature review identified and prioritized clinical questions related to the use of SARS-CoV-2 serologic tests. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology was used to assess the certainty of evidence and make testing recommendations.

Results: The panel agreed on eight diagnostic recommendations.

Conclusions: Information on the clinical performance and utility of SARS-CoV-2 serologic tests are rapidly emerging. Based on available evidence, detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies may be useful for confirming the presence of current or past infection in selected situations. The panel identified three potential indications for serologic testing including: 1) evaluation of patients with a high clinical suspicion for COVID-19 when molecular diagnostic testing is negative and at least two weeks have passed since symptom onset; 2) assessment of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children; and 3) for conducting serosurveillance studies. The certainty of available evidence supporting the use of serology for either diagnosis or epidemiology was, however, graded as very low to moderate

Aggarwal N, Garg M, Dwarakanathan V, Gautam N, Kumar SS, Jadon RS, Gupta M, Ray A. Diagnostic accuracy of non-contact infrared thermometers and thermal scanners: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Travel Med. 2020 Oct 10:taaa193. doi: 10.1093/jtm/taaa193. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33043363.

Infrared thermal screening, via the use of handheld non-contact infrared thermometers (NCITs) and thermal scanners, has been widely implemented all over the world. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate its diagnostic accuracy for the detection of fever. We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, medRxiv, bioRxiv, ClinicalTrials.gov, COVID-19 Open Research Dataset, COVID-19 research database, Epistemonikos, EPPI-Centre, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Scopus and Web of Science databases for studies where a non-contact infrared device was used to detect fever against a reference standard of conventional thermometers. Forest plots and Hierarchical Summary Receiver Operating Characteristics curves were used to describe the pooled summary estimates of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio. From a total of 1063 results, 30 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis, of which 19 were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.808 (95%CI 0.656-0.903) and 0.920 (95%CI 0.769-0.975), respectively, for the NCITs (using forehead as the site of measurement), and 0.818 (95%CI 0.758-0.866) and 0.923 (95%CI 0.823-0.969), respectively, for thermal scanners. The sensitivity of NCITs increased on use of rectal temperature as the reference. The sensitivity of thermal scanners decreased in a disease outbreak/pandemic setting. Changes approaching statistical significance were also observed on the exclusion of neonates from the analysis. Thermal screening had a low positive predictive value, especially at the initial stage of an outbreak, while the negative predictive value (NPV) continued to be high even at later stages. Thermal screening has reasonable diagnostic accuracy in the detection of fever, although it may vary with changes in subject characteristics, setting, index test, and the reference standard used. Thermal screening has a good NPV even during a pandemic. The policymakers must take into consideration the factors surrounding the screening strategy while forming ad-hoc guidelines.

Raschetti R, Vivanti AJ, Vauloup-Fellous C, Loi B, Benachi A, De Luca D. Synthesis and systematic review of reported neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections. Nat Commun. 2020 Oct 15;11(1):5164. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-18982-9. PMID: 33060565; PMCID: PMC7566441.

A number of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections have been reported in neonates. Here, we aim to clarify the transmission route, clinical features and outcomes of these infections. We present a meta-analysis of 176 published cases of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections that were defined by at least one positive nasopharyngeal swab and/or the presence of specific IgM. We report that 70% and 30% of infections are due to environmental and vertical transmission, respectively. Our analysis shows that 55% of infected neonates developed COVID-19; the most common symptoms were fever (44%), gastrointestinal (36%), respiratory (52%) and neurological manifestations (18%), and lung imaging was abnormal in 64% of cases. A lack of mother-neonate separation from birth is associated with late SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR 4.94 (95% CI: 1.98-13.08), p = 0.0002; adjusted OR 6.6 (95% CI: 2.6-16), p < 0.0001), while breastfeeding is not (OR 0.35 (95% CI: 0.09-1.18), p = 0.10; adjusted OR 2.2 (95% CI: 0.7-6.5), p = 0.148). Our findings add to the literature on neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections.

Dumitriu D, Emeruwa UN, Hanft E, Liao GV, Ludwig E, Walzer L, Arditi B, Saslaw M, Andrikopoulou M, Scripps T, Baptiste C, Khan A, Breslin N, Rubenstein D, Simpson LL, Kyle MH, Friedman AM, Hirsch DS, Miller RS, Fernández CR, Fuchs KM, Keown MK, Glassman ME, Stephens A, Gupta A, Sultan S, Sibblies C, Whittier S, Abreu W, Akita F, Penn A, D’Alton ME, Orange JS, Goffman D, Saiman L, Stockwell MS, Gyamfi-Bannerman C. Outcomes of Neonates Born to Mothers With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection at a Large Medical Center in New York City. JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Oct 12:e204298. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.4298. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33044493; PMCID: PMC7551222.

Importance: Limited data on vertical and perinatal transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and health outcomes of neonates born to mothers with symptomatic or asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are available. Studies are needed to inform evidence-based infection prevention and control (IP&C) policies.

Objective: To describe the outcomes of neonates born to mothers with perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection and the IP&C practices associated with these outcomes.

Design, setting, and participants: This retrospective cohort analysis reviewed the medical records for maternal and newborn data for all 101 neonates born to 100 mothers positive for or with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection from March 13 to April 24, 2020. Testing for SARS-CoV-2 was performed using Cobas (Roche Diagnostics) or Xpert Xpress (Cepheid) assays. Newborns were admitted to well-baby nurseries (WBNs) (82 infants) and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) (19 infants) in 2 affiliate hospitals at a large academic medical center in New York, New York. Newborns from the WBNs roomed-in with their mothers, who were required to wear masks. Direct breastfeeding after appropriate hygiene was encouraged.

Exposures: Perinatal exposure to maternal asymptomatic/mild vs severe/critical COVID-19.

Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome was newborn SARS-CoV-2 testing results. Maternal COVID-19 status was classified as asymptomatic/mildly symptomatic vs severe/critical. Newborn characteristics and clinical courses were compared across maternal COVID-19 severity.

Results: In total, 141 tests were obtained from 101 newborns (54 girls [53.5%]) on 0 to 25 days of life (DOL-0 to DOL-25) (median, DOL-1; interquartile range [IQR], DOL-1 to DOL-3). Two newborns had indeterminate test results, indicative of low viral load (2.0%; 95% CI, 0.2%-7.0%); 1 newborn never underwent retesting but remained well on follow-up, and the other had negative results on retesting. Maternal severe/critical COVID-19 was associated with newborns born approximately 1 week earlier (median gestational age, 37.9 [IQR, 37.1-38.4] vs 39.1 [IQR, 38.3-40.2] weeks; P = .02) and at increased risk of requiring phototherapy (3 of 10 [30.0%] vs 6 of 91 [7.0%]; P = .04) compared with newborns of mothers with asymptomatic/mild COVID-19. Fifty-five newborns were followed up in a new COVID-19 Newborn Follow-up Clinic at DOL-3 to DOL-10 and remained well. Twenty of these newborns plus 3 newborns followed up elsewhere had 32 nonroutine encounters documented at DOL-3 to DOL-25, and none had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including 6 with negative retesting results.

Conclusions and relevance: No clinical evidence of vertical transmission was identified in 101 newborns of mothers positive for or with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection, despite most newborns rooming-in and direct breastfeeding practices.

Been JV, Burgos Ochoa L, Bertens LCM, Schoenmakers S, Steegers EAP, Reiss IKM. Impact of COVID-19 mitigation measures on the incidence of preterm birth: a national quasi-experimental study. Lancet Public Health. 2020 Oct 13:S2468-2667(20)30223-1. doi: 10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30223-1. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33065022; PMCID: PMC7553867.

Background: Preterm birth is the leading cause of child mortality globally, with many survivors experiencing long-term adverse consequences. Preliminary evidence suggests that numbers of preterm births greatly reduced following implementation of policy measures aimed at mitigating the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to study the impact of the COVID-19 mitigation measures implemented in the Netherlands in a stepwise fashion on March 9, March 15, and March 23, 2020, on the incidence of preterm birth.

Methods: We used a national quasi-experimental difference-in-regression-discontinuity approach. We used data from the neonatal dried blood spot screening programme (2010-20) cross-validated against national perinatal registry data. Stratified analyses were done according to gestational age subgroups, and sensitivity analyses were done to assess robustness of the findings. We explored potential effect modification by neighbourhood socioeconomic status, sex, and small-for-gestational-age status.

Findings: Data on 1 599 547 singleton neonates were available, including 56 720 births that occurred after implementation of COVID-19 mitigation measures on March 9, 2020. Consistent reductions in the incidence of preterm birth were seen across various time windows surrounding March 9 (± 2 months [n=531 823] odds ratio [OR] 0·77, 95% CI 0·66-0·91, p=0·0026; ± 3 months [n=796 531] OR 0·85, 0·73-0·98, p=0·028; ± 4 months [n=1 066 872] OR 0·84, 0·73-0·97, p=0·023). Decreases in incidence observed following the March 15 measures were of smaller magnitude, but not statistically significant. No changes were observed after March 23. Reductions in the incidence of preterm births after March 9 were consistent across gestational age strata and robust in sensitivity analyses. They appeared confined to neighbourhoods of high socioeconomic status, but effect modification was not statistically significant.

Interpretation: In this national quasi-experimental study, initial implementation of COVID-19 mitigation measures was associated with a substantial reduction in the incidence of preterm births in the following months, in agreement with preliminary observations elsewhere. Integration of comparable data from across the globe is needed to further substantiate these findings and start exploring underlying mechanisms.

Chua BS, Song LH, Chang CT, Lim XJ, Nachiappan J. Drive-through transcutaneous bilirubin screening for neonatal jaundice: A safe and efficient system during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Oct 19. doi: 10.1111/jpc.15226. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33078471.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases was on an increasing trend, including in Malaysia. The Malaysian Ministry of Health had implemented a range of measures, such as the use of masks and social distancing, to reduce the risk of transmission. Traditionally, newborns are evaluated for neonatal jaundice using visual assessment, a capillary heel prick and serum bilirubin (SB) sampling in primary health-care clinics. This approach requires the physical presence of both parents and their newborns in the primary health-care clinics, causing crowding and increasing the risk of COVID-19 infections. To alleviate crowding, we implemented the transcutaneous bilirubin drive-through (DT) service, which is an established, non-invasive, painless and rapid method to determine the bilirubin levels. Throughout the screening, both parents and baby will be confined to their car. A total of 1842 babies were screened in our DT setting from April to July 2020. Of the total babies, 298 (16.1%) required venesection for SB measurement and 85 required admission for phototherapy. None with severe jaundice were missed since the implementation of this service. The average test duration per neonate was less than 5 min, while conventional venous bilirubin laboratory testing required an average of 1.5 h per neonate. The cost of the SB laboratory test and consumables was approximately USD 5 per test, with an estimated cost savings of USD 7720. DT screening may be introduced in health-care settings to reduce crowding and eliminate the need of painful blood sampling in newborns.

Conclusion: The transplacental passage of specific IgG antibodies from the affected mother to the unaffected fetus highlights neonatal passive immunity.

Cavaliere AF, Marchi L, Aquilini D, Brunelli T, Vasarri PL. Passive Immunity in Newborn from SARS-CoV-2 Infected Mother. J Med Virol. 2020 Oct 19. doi: 10.1002/jmv.26609. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33073377.

Background: SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission is an open issue. Recent reports call into question in utero or peripartum viral transmission to the offspring. Few data are available on IgG and/or IgM in newborn. Insufficient evidence is available regarding passive immunity in neonates born from SARS-CoV-2 infected women.

Case: We report a case of a neonate showing the presence of blood specific IgG and the absence of IgM and negative nasopharyngeal swab. He was born from an asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected mother with positive IgG and IgM.

N. 84 _ Ottobre 2020

  • Responsabilità e tutela professionale – Commissione SIN-Safe
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  • Il Volto umano della cura
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  • Ruolo dell’ostetrico durante la distocia di spalla (DS)
  • Cosa ci ha insegnato la pandemia da SARS-CoV-2
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